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Cross-cultural management
From the May 2012 Issue
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Executive Summary

Reprint: R1205H

Like it or not, English is the global language of business. Today 1.75 billion people speak English at a useful level—that’s one in four of us. Multinational companies such as Airbus, Daimler-Chrysler, SAP, Nokia, Alcatel-Lucent, and Microsoft in Beijing have mandated English as the corporate language. And any company with a global presence or global aspirations would be wise to do the same, says HBS professor Tsedal Neeley, to ensure good communication and collaboration with customers, suppliers, business partners, and other stakeholders.

But while moving toward a single language at work is necessary and inevitable, Neeley’s research shows that implementing such a policy is fraught with complications. English-only policies can create job insecurity and dissatisfaction and generate strife between native and nonnative English speakers in cross-national teams.

Companies can anticipate and plan for inevitable challenges and resistance when adopting an English-only policy. Using Japanese internet services firm Rakuten as a case example, this article outlines guidelines for proper implementation.

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Ready or not, English is now the global language of business. More and more multinational companies are mandating English as the common corporate language—Airbus, Daimler-Chrysler, Fast Retailing, Nokia, Renault, Samsung, SAP, Technicolor, and Microsoft in Beijing, to name a few—in an attempt to facilitate communication and performance across geographically diverse functions and business endeavors.

Adopting a common mode of speech isn’t just a good idea; it’s a must, even for an American company with operations overseas, for instance, or a French company focused on domestic customers. Imagine that a group of salespeople from a company’s Paris headquarters get together for a meeting. Why would you care whether they all could speak English? Now consider that the same group goes on a sales call to a company also based in Paris, not realizing that the potential customer would be bringing in employees from other locations who didn’t speak French. This happened at one company I worked with. Sitting together in Paris, employees of those two French companies couldn’t close a deal because the people in the room couldn’t communicate. It was a shocking wake-up call, and the company soon adopted an English corporate language strategy.

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Software Carpentry: lessons learned [version 1; referees: 3 approved]
Greg Wilson
Greg Wilson
PUBLISHED 19 二月 2014
Mozilla Science Lab, Mountain View CA, 94041-2021, USA
This article is included in the Bioinformatics Education and Training Collection collection.


Over the last 15 years, Software Carpentry has evolved from a week-long training course at the US National Laboratories into a worldwide volunteer effort to raise standards in scientific computing. This article explains what we have learned along the way, the challenges we now face, and our plans for the future.
Corresponding Author(s)
Greg Wilson ( FOOTWEAR Ankle boots M Missoni Fashionable Sale With Paypal bx1kZcuIB
Grant information: Software Carpentry is currently supported by a grant from the Sloan Foundation.
There is a newer version of this article available.

In January 2012, John Cook posted this to his widely-read blog Orange Suede Carmin Sandals CALVIN KLEIN 205W39NYC Cheap Sale Pictures Buy Cheap Low Price Outlet Sneakernews IBrrsUp

In a review of linear programming solvers from 1987 to 2002, Bob Bixby says that solvers benefited as much from algorithm improvements as from Moore’s law: “Three orders of magnitude in machine speed and three orders of magnitude in algorithmic speed add up to six orders of magnitude in solving power. A model that might have taken a year to solve 10 years ago can now solve in less than 30 seconds”.

A million-fold speed-up is impressive, but hardware and algorithms are only two sides of the iron triangle of programming. The third is programming itself, and while improvements to languages, tools, and practices have undoubtedly made software developers more productive since 1987, the speed-up is percentages rather than orders of magnitude. Setting aside the minority who do high-performance computing (HPC), the time it takes the “desktop majority” of scientists to produce a new computational result is increasingly dominated by how long it takes to write, test, debug, install, and maintain software.

Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed

Coastal waters and lowlands of the U.S. are threatened by climate change, sea-level rise, flooding, oxygen depleted “dead zones”, oil spills and unforeseen disasters. With funding from the IOOS Program Office, strong and strategic collaborations among experts from academia, federal operational centers and industry are forged to create the U.S. IOOS Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed (COMT).

The COMT serves as a conduit between the federal operational and research communities and allows sharing of numerical models, observations and software tools. The COMT supports integration, comparison, scientific analyses and archiving of data and model output needed to elucidate, prioritize, and resolve federal and regional operational coastal ocean issues associated with a range of existing and emerging coastal oceanic, hydrologic, and ecological models. The Testbed has enabled significant community building (within the modeling community as well as enhancing academic and federal operational relations) which has dramatically improved model development.

Projects supported through the COMT are designed to create new knowledge, new model code and tools; develop operational user capacity; and build a repository of evaluation data sets to expand and improve the modeling capabilities of operational partners and the broader coastal and ocean modeling community. Transition from research to operations is enhanced by scoping projects that meet identified operational needs, including both researchers and operational users on project teams, and leveraging transition resources.

For the most up to date information on current projects, please go to .

This page includes background information on the testbed, governing documents and some of our summary and overview presentations.

The Mission

To use applied research and development to accelerate the transition of scientific and technical advances from the coastal ocean modeling research community to improved operational ocean products and services (i.e. via research to operations and also operations to research).

The Vision

To increase the accuracy, reliability, and scope of the federal suite of operational ocean modeling products to meet the needs of a diverse user community. Operational use covers a wide range of society-critical applications including forecasts, forensic studies, risk assessment, and design and system management.

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